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BI PV Urban Scale Project Details
Name projectStad van de Zon (City of the Sun)
Year2008-00-00 (Start operation date)
PV applicationInclined roof - integrated,
Flat roof - integrated
PV power total kWp
Latitude/Longitude52°38'46"N 4°48'25"E
© Heerhugowaard, Stad van de Zon (City of the Sun), 2006

Project summary
The core of the “Stad van de Zon” (City of the Sun) is the residential area in Heerhugowaard, which has been designed to be a net zero CO2 emissions area. This would be achieved by installing 3,75MW of photovoltaic systems, 100 hectares of forest and three wind turbines of 2,3 MW each. The project was aimed to have a total installed peak power of 5MW. The residential area has been built up since 2002 and the development will be completed in 2008/09. Due to mainly financing problems the goal of 3,75MW in ‘suncity’ Heerhugowaard has been lowered to 2,45MW.

Urban scale PV aspects
The project is the largest PV housing project in the world. Solar energy was taken into account from the very first beginning of the urban development. In 1992, upon the request of the provincial government, the cities of Heerhugowaard, Alkmaar and Langendijk started together to develop a new town called HAL-location. Ashok Bhalotra, a well-known urban planner from Kuiper Compagnons was invited and introduced sketches for a city based on solar energy (1993). Based on this a so-called "structural sketch" was made for the HAL-location, as well as the name “Stad van de Zon” was born. The sun became starting point for urban and architectural design. To stimulate and educate architects a design workshop “PV-Atelier” was organized.

Special PV project info
PV architecture and building integrationAs well as being the urban developer of the City of the Sun, Ashok Bhalotra is also the architectural supervisor in the HAL-area. A great number of architects have been involved in the 5MW project including BEAR Gouda, Nowotny Rotterdam, INBO Woudenberg, 19 Het Atelier Zwolle, Roy Gelders Amsterdam, Hans Wagner Amsterdam, BBHD Schagen, Taneja Hartsuyker Amsterdam and Van den Oever Zaaijer & Partners Amsterdam.
Urban planning issuesThe project is part of the urban development “HAL-Lokaties” covering the area between three cities. Together with PV-projects in Alkmaar and Langedijk the project was aimed to have a total installed peak power of 5MW.
Economical and financial issuesOne of the early goals of stakeholders of the project was that the size of project would help to reduce PV prices in the Netherlands but the project has had little influence on the price of PV, especially because the market in Germany became dominant for this. An overall price below 5 EUR/W is not bad though. In the (early) Langedijk sub-projects the PV system is owned by the energy company NUON during the first 10 year; after 10 year the system will be owned by the house owner. However, in Alkmaar and Heerhugowaard the owner of the house is also the owner of the PV system from the start. Initially, the inhabitants were not very interested, but the introduction of net-metering increased their interest.
PV ownershipBuilding owner: Inhabitant(dwellings are individually owned). PV owner: Inhabitant. PV energy user: Inhabitant.
Tariffs and metering
Info on grid issuesA grid study has been carried out. As the PV systems are installed in a new housing district, the grid has been designed and realized in line with all needs. Therefore grid problems are not to be expected nor have been occurred up to now. City of the Sun offers us a unique situation with so many dispersed small energy producers in one district, but no major research has been planned on grid issues yet.
Other infoIn the Heerhugowaard project the municipality had the lead. There are three major subsidizing bodies: the Dutch government, the province of North Holland and the European Commission. The time frames of both the national and European subsidies turned out to be too narrow for the real development of a new town: a mismatch continuously causing almost ‘fatal’ problems. The important awards which this project has won may have helped the municipality and the province of North Holland not to loose heart.
Remarks and recommended readingEnergy yield per year: 3 750 000 kWh/year (calculated). Other project company: HALLokaties C.V., Edisonweg 3, NL-1821 BN Alkmaar.

Other project data
Type of projectCommercial project
Other relevant aspects
Start of PV project
Start operation PV system2008-00-00
Main project leading companyCity Heerhugowaard, Postbus 390, NL-1700 AJ Heerhugowaard
Main project contact person
Contact emailEmil ter Horst, Horisun: eth@horisun.nl
Contact addressCity Heerhugowaard, Postbus 390, NL-1700 AJ Heerhugowaard
Includes PV database projects

Urban district data
Kind of urban areaResidential - urban
Main building typesHouses - attached houses
New/Retrofit/AddedNew building integration
Main PV area address

PV systems
PV applicationInclined roof - integrated,
Flat roof - integrated
PV power total urban project5000 kWp
Number of dwellings/units3500
PV power per dwellings/units1 kWp
Main PV system typesGrid-connected - demand side
Main PV module typesFramed - regular module
Main PV cell typesCrystalline silicon - unknown other or mixed
PV module brand and typeShell Solar and BP Solar
PV inverter brand and typeSMA Sunny Boy 2500

PV cost and energy production
Total PV system investment25 Euro
Average PV modules only costs
Total PV energy yield3750000 kWh Calculated
PV energy user owner

Projects websitehttp://www.pvdatabase.org
Other websites
Webpage Educational Tool

1. StadvandeZon.pdf (language: English)

(bipv) building integrated pv